It can be a total disappointment to see your plants fade away from a certain disease. There are many plant diseases that can attack your plants, and this occurs when some organism infects a plant and disrupts its normal growth habits. Unfortunately, it can cause your plant anything from slight yellowing to death.
Disease fungi take their energy from the plants where they live. They are responsible for an important amount of damage and can be characterized by issues like wilting, scabs, moldy coatings, rusts, blotches and rotted tissue. According to the University of Florida, around 85% of all plant diseases are caused by fungi, meaning you’re more likely to encounter fungal diseases than any other disease.
We offer you a list of common plant diseases that can help you quickly diagnose when there’s a more serious problem, and keep your plants thriving and happy. The next time you notice something strange happening with your plants, you’ll know just what to do.
There are actually several types of blight you should be careful for: and all of them are easily recognizable because it often cause the sudden death of all plant tissue, including the flowers, stems and leaves.
Fire blight. Fire blight is a bacterial disease which affects apples, pears, fruit trees, roses, and small fruits. When shoots are affected, they appear to be blackened. You will see lesions on the branches and limbs that ooze a light brown liquid on very warm days. You should treat fire blight as soon as you see it, because it can spread quickly to the whole fruit and cause death.
First put on gloves for protection, and add 4 cups of water in a large bowl. Add 1 cup of bleach and pour it slowly. Stir with a spoon. Before treating the plant, prune all affected branches using shears. Dip them in the bleach mix after each cut since you don’t want to spread the infection. Cut all branches at least 12 inches below the last branch which is wilted and discolored. Afterwards, dispose of them in a 100 feet away place.
Pour 6 cups of water into a 1 gallon garden sprayer, and add 4 cups of white vinegar. Close the lid and shake the sprayer and mix the contents. Put on safety glasses and pump the handle on the sprayer in order to pressurize the mix. Spray the nozzle of your tree from bottom to top, but consider getting under the leaves. Now, spray again. And then, spray the tree trunk. Repeat the process in 2 weeks to make sure the fire blight is eradicated.
Early blight. Fungal blight infecst plants, vegetables, shade trees and fruit trees, however, when it strikes tomatoes, peppers or potatoes, it’s referred to as early blight. Symptoms of it, include brown to black colored spots on your leaves that can develop concentric rings. If they’re really blighted, the leaves will dry up and die because the spots grow together. You may notice symptoms on lower leaves first. Potato tubers can grow sunken, dark spots. Moreover, early blight can happen anytime throughout the growing season, with high temperatures and wet conditions, and it spreads rapidly.
To try and prevent it is significant when it comes to early blight. The best option is to dispose of plants which are infected and use a 3-year rotation if possible. Make sure you buy your starts and seeds from some trusted source, and have in mind to allow some space between your plants in order for the air to be able to circulate. During wet weather, check your plants often. If you notice anything that looks like a sign of blight, use an organic copper spray, since it is considered safe, even though you can spray early in the morning to avoid harming bees.
Late blight. Late blight can infect flowers such as azaleas, holly, lilacs and rhododendrons, causing dieback of shoots and stem cankers. It can infect tomatoes, potatoes, and peppers as well. The first symptoms include water-soaked spots on lower leaves, and these gradually become larger and are mirrored on the bellow-surface of the leaf with a white downy growth. On potatoes, dark-colored blotches will penetrate the flesh. They might seem like sunken lesions. During a wet season, the affected plant will rot and die. Again, prevention is very important.Have in mind to use trellis and plant supports in order to keep branches off the ground, and use lots of mulch. Avoid watering your plants from above, but rather water in the early morning hours so that they’ll dry out by nightfall. If blight shows up anyway, unfortunately you’ll have to pull out all infected plants and put them into the trash.
Cankers are known by dead areas on the stem’s and are often discolored. They form on woody stems most of the time, and can be sunken areas, cracks or raised areas of abnormal or dead tissue. They might ooze or girdle trunks or shoots, which can cause death to everything else.
Cytospora cankers are a fungal disease that can affect stone fruits, spruces and popular, and usually develop lik discolored circular areas on the bark. Nectria cankers are most likely to attack most hardwoods and some shrubs and vines, hence,it’s most damaging to maple trees. You may see little, sunken areas that appear on the bark right next to wounds, together with small pink spore-producing structures.In order to control it, make sure you remove diseased branches and limit the pruning cuts.
Rusts are a different type of fungal disease, and usually need 2 different plant species to use as hosts to complete their life cycle. Typical symptoms include a light tan, or rust-hued coating, which at first often appears on little twigs and needles. In order to control, it’s significant to provide your plants some space for air circulation. If you Apply neem oil, it can help prevent it as it will kill spores on the leaves. If it does develop, make sure to remove any infected plants and burn them when autumn comes.
With other types of rust, such as white pine blister, wheat, and cedar-apple rust, they require another host, the removal of alternate hosts can control an outbreak. For instance, wheat rust needs barberry, white pine blister needs a susceptible member of the currant family and cedar-apple requires both an apple and a juniper relative.
You probably have heard that when your plants lack water, they wilt. However, if fungi or bacteria attack, they might cause permanent wilting which is usually followed by the death of the plant. A verticillium wilt is a fungal disease attacking various types of vegetables, fruits, ornamentals, and flowers, and causes plants to wilt and possibly turn yellow. It invades susceptible plants through their roots and spreads through the plant’s vascular system, leading them to die. Unfortunately, it cannot be cured once it attacks the plant, so the best alternative is to remove and destroy the affected plants. If, however, only a branch is affected, you might just be able to stop it by cutting out well below the symptoms. Have in mind that the disease remains in the soil after the removal, so don’t plant another susceptible species in that field.
5. Club root
Club root tend to affect flowers and vegetables that are in the cabbage family. If your plants happen to be infected by this fungus, they will usually wilt during the day and become revived again at night, any older yellow leaves will drop off. The roots are probably swollen or distorted. Club root will reduce yields and will cause death of the plants. You can prevent its occurrence by keeping your garden clean and rotating crops and controlling susceptible weeds like shepherd’s purse and mustard too. If you have infected plants, simply remove them and sterilize all garden tools using 1-part bleach and 4-parts water.
6. Leaf curl & leaf blister
These fungal diseasescan lead to distorted, curled leaves on various trees. There are many types of the diseases, for example, peach leaf curl can attack almonds and peaches, so you notice that new leaves are pale, and the midrib doesn’t grow together with the leaves, causing them to curl and pucker as they expand. The fruit is damaged as well, and if it’s a bad case, peach leaf curl can kill the tree. Oak leaf blister can kill oak trees – the blisters appear like yellow bumps on the upper surface of the leaves and gray depressions on the lower surface. With either disease, you can control them using a dormant oil spray, which is safe for the tree, humans, pets and the environment.
7. Black Spot
Black Spot is a disease that commonly strikes roses. The spots appear on the leaves, up to a half-inch across, with yellow margins. If you leave it unchecked, it can lead to a rose bush to totally defoliate. Once your rose bush is attacked by black spot fungus, its markings will stay until the marked leaves fall off and a new leaf is generated. The fungus that causes them can be killed so as to not do any further damage to the foliage, but the marks will remain for some time.
Treating it starts with prevention, which includes adequate planting sites that get plenty of sunlight and circulation, prune and the use of resistant cultivars. Use mulch to prevent dirt and spores from being splashed up onto the plants.
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